This study was carried out to assess the impacts of monoculture of exotic tree species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Robinia pseudoacacia) on species composition and diversity of the undergrowth in relation to indigenous tree species of Pinus roxburghii, Acacia modesta and to provide the baseline data on the undergrowth species of the plantations forest of exotic and indigenous tree species that might be helpful in conservation of biodiversity through appropriate selection of tree species for large scale plantation programs. A total of 174 plants species belonging to 74 families and 150 genera were reported in the selected research plots of trees of indigenous and exotic tree plots. Among the recorded species 143 (82%) were Dyocotyledons, 26 (15%) species were monocotyledons and 4 (2.3%) were pteridophytes while only 1 (0.7%) plant was recorded from gymnosperms. In both of exotic and indigenous tree stands, 97% of the plant species were Angiosperms, 2.3% were Pteridophytes and only 0.7% were Gymnosperms. A total of 149 undergrowth species including 23 tree species were found in indigenous stand and 111 species including 18 tree species in exotic stands. The exotic tree plots were comprised of 22% less species in comparison to indigenous plots. The average value of Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.41 and 3.73 collectively in all exotic and indigenous plots respectively, which conclude that the extent of species diversity was higher in indigenous tree plots than in exotic tree plots and the flora of the study area was highly diversified. This study suggests preferring the indigenous species for plantations programs in forested and fertile land areas; and exotic species for that of degraded and barren areas with strict maintenance of the natural conditions.
Kenaf is a fast growing important industrial crop and performs reasonably better under salt stress conditions. However, differences exist among kenaf genotypes for salt tolerance. To evaluate the influence of salt tolerance among seven alloplasmic kenaf materials, the present study was performed to identify the beneficial genetic variation of heterologous cytoplasm during germination and early seedling stages. The results showed that seed vigor, phenotypic characteristics and seedlings root growth of seven materials were substantially influenced by salt stress. The hybrids, C2/992, C3/992, and C4/992 showed better seed vigor, while C1/992 and the restorer lineFH992 were found sensitive to salt stress. NaCl concentration was negatively correlated seedling growth. Seedling height, aboveground fresh weight, SPAD, and root growth were significantly reduced withincreasing salt stress. The hybrids C4/992 and P3B were found better in root growth as compared to C2/992 and FH992. Moreover, four isonuclear alloplasmic cytoplasms exhibited differential cytoplasmic effects on same or different traits both at germination and seedling stages. Taken together, C4 cytoplasm has more positive effects on seed vigor and seedling growth under salt stress than others cytoplasm and hence its cultivation under saline conditions is suggested. P3A, as a female parent, could be used for salt tolerance breeding.
In this study the biodegradation, volatilization and the adsorption removals of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs ) and Polybrominated Perﬂuorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and their metabolites from a raw hospital wastewater were investigated in an aerobic CSTR at increasing SRTs. As the SRT was increased from 23 days to 45 and to 143 days the removals were increased. Removal mchanisms of Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide ethanol (EtFOSE) from PFOS and Deca bromo diphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Tetra bromo –(BDE-47)-2,2\',4,4\'- tetrabromodiphenyl ether( tetra -(BDE 47)from PBDEs (biodegradability under aerobic conditions, adsorption and volatilization) were investigated. It was found that the main micropollutant were mainly degraded via biodegradation (EtFOSE 60%, BDE-209 62% and BDE -47 68%) while their metabolites were degraded via adsorption to the aerobic sludge organism due to more hydrophobic properties. 38% of EtFOSE was removed via volatilization due high air−water partition coefficient. Aerobic degradation products of EtFOSE were perfluorooctanesulfonamide(FOSA) and perfluorooctanesulfonat (PFOS) and they were mainly degraded via adsorption( 76-79%) while perfluorooctanesulfonamido acetic acid( FOSAA), Ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido acetic acid (EfFOSAA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) were biodegraded with low yields(33-42%). Some of BDE-209 metabolites were 3,3-dihydroxy-4,4 diamino phenyl, 40-dibromodiphenyl ether, 4-bromophenol and they were biodegraded with low yields(17-31%). The other BDE-209 metabolites Tetra-(BDE 47), penta-(BDE 99), Bromo phenol and bromocathechol were bodegraded with high yields ( 83-98%).BDE-47 metabolites were mainly degraded via adsorption.