Opioids dependence have become a major health concern for many countries especially in the United States. Drugs use and addiction have been inextricably linked with Blood-borne virus infections such as HIV, HBV and HCV. Numerous research have reported that drugs use facilitates and increased the spread of virus infections worldwide. Therefore, several studies have been conducted to develop new strategies in order to treat drugs addiction in several countries. Anti-drug vaccine are currently a great choice and an alternative option to treat drugs addiction comparing to traditional treatments. In this review we compiled available data on Anti-drug vaccine with a particular focus on vaccine design developments.
The goal of the present study is to increase the intelligibility of macroeconomic phenomena triggered by governmental intervention in economy by means of fiscal policies. During cyclical movements, fiscal policy can play an important role in order to help stabilize the economy. But discretionary policy usually implies implementation lags and is not automatically reversed when economic conditions change. In contrast, automatic fiscal stabilizers ensure a prompter, and self-correcting fiscal response. The present study aims to tackle the topic of discretionary vs nondiscretionary characteristic of fiscal stabilizers. In this context, the scope of the research undertaking is to launch a scientific debate over the definitions of the concepts of nonautomatic fiscal stabilizers and automatic fiscal stabilizers. We describe how we can quantify the discretionary and non-discretionary character of the fiscal policy, by the analysis of the structure of the conventional budget balance, budget balance associated with the current GDP. In the final part of this article, we propose a quantitative equilibrium model for establishing the mathematical prerequisites for a fiscal stabilizer to become automatic. Likewise, on the basis of the proposed mathematical model we have performed a qualitative analysis of the influence factors.
Abstract \nIn the \"Strategy\" Kazakhstan-2050 \"- new political course held state,\" actualizing the issues related to the problems of formation of national consciousness among the youth in the designated perspective, focuses on the fact that there is a necessary condition for building a civilized way, in the nearest future, the Strong Powerful and Kazakh state. This can be achieved by maintaining the cultural code (language, spirituality, traditions) of the nation. Therefore, these components need to be taken as an integral part of the consciousness of modern man and the meaning of modern education. \nIn this regard, in the process of education and training of young people is necessary, first, to take into account global changes occurring in the world and, second, to pay special attention to the deep study of national, cultural-historical and socio-economic status of its people. Hence the education of the individual student conscious possessing human and national values is an urgent modern problem today.
The primary role of universities is to nurture productive citizens. Youth view university education as a vital step to become future’s managers. Possession of leadership initiatives and display of citizenship performance behaviour have been viewed helpful in securing preferred jobs, and career development for the youth. Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been identified as an important factor in the context. Objectives of the study were to empirically assess the EI level, leadership styles, and citizenship performance behaviour (CPB) of university students, and to analyse the relationships among them. Hundred and seventy six university students (103 girls, and 73 boys) were selected from Zlin, Czech Republic. A shortened version of the multifactor leadership questionnaire, Genos EI Inventory, and Poropot, and Jone’s index was used to measure the key variables among respondents. Descriptive and inferential analyses of survey data were conducted using SPSS software. Variations were observed between boys, and girls in the leadership styles, EI levels, and CPB. Fluctuation of respondents’ EI levels indicated the volatility of the reasoning ability of university students in their competitive emotional encounters. Study concludes positive relationships of transformational leadership style with CPB, and EI in a collectivist and non-for profit context. Further EI level has indicated a low and positive mediatory impact to the relationship between transformational leadership style and CPB of university students. Inculcating practices to improve the awareness and usage of EI, and transformational leadership style among university students would facilitate grooming societally contributory future managers.