Many preservatives are made by artificial synthesis, which led to a series of issues. Some chemicals as preservatives accumulated in human bodies causing a threat to health. However, what\'s even worse is some preservatives from chemical components are poisonous to human with a low concentration. These artificial preservatives are usually need relatively high technique and huge cost. Hence, more and more researchers are developing more preservatives from natural products to replace artificial preservatives. Our study concentrates on finding potential edible mushroom extracts against foodborne bacteria. Fortunately, Dictyophora indusiata and Thelephora ganbajun Zang are two probable candidates to eliminate foodborne bacteria. We hope that our research will offer the opportunity to develop more natural preservatives in future. Make food safer, and make life safer.
Smart poultry application technology for animal welfare using the Internet of things (IOT), wireless biosensors, and smart phones has attracted attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of smart poultry feeding system on meat quality, behavioral activities, and animal welfare of broiler chickens. A total of 1,000 broiler chickens (ROSS 308) were allocated into two feeding system groups: a conventional feeding system (CON) and a smart poultry feeding system (SP). Behavioral activities (feeding, drinking, preening, standing, lying, walking), welfare indicators (footpad lesions, hock burns, breast and hip lesions, gait score, tibia length), and meat quality were determined. Results revealed that the SP group had better behavioral activities and welfare indicators of boiler chickens than the CON group. The SP group had higher pH and water holding capacity of chicken meats but lower drip loss and cooking loss than the CON group. These results indicate that behavior, welfare, and meat quality of broiler chickens can be improved remarkably by using the smart poultry feeding system.
To improve animal welfare, smart poultry automation technology has been developed through convergence of information and communications technology (ICT) for applications in smart poultry farms. In this study, effects of a smart poultry feeding system on egg cholesterol and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, behavior, and welfare of laying hens were investigated. A total of 400 laying hens (Hy-line brown) at 50 weeks old were assigned into a conventional feeding system (CON group) and a smart poultry feeding system (SP group) in a randomized block design. These hens were reared for 10 weeks in an enriched cage system of animal welfare type. Feeding, drinking, preening, standing, lying, walking and feather-pecking scores as behavior indicators of laying hens in the SP group were superior to those in the CON group (all p < 0.05). Animal welfare scores by the smart poultry feeding system were high in the SP group than those in the CON group (p < 0.05). Contents of unsaturated fatty acid and oleic acid of eggs were higher in the SP group with the smart poultry feeding system. However, saturated fatty acid content and ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acid were lower in the SP group than those in the CON group (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that egg cholesterol and n-6/n-3 fatty ratio, behavior, and welfare of laying hens can be improved by using ICT convergence system to smart poultry feeding.
This research is aimed to analyze the effect of the migration mechanism of the copper\nlayer deposited on graphite surface using magnetron sputtering, influence on the microrelief\nstructure and electrical properties of a copper-graphite composite. The research attempted to\nestimate the effect of copper migration on the microporosity structure, and electrical conductivity\nand specific surface area of a copper-graphite composite. The magnetron evaporation method\nwas used to form 200 nm layers on graphite plate surface. The dimensions of irregularly shaped\nmicro formations on the surface vary within the limits of 1-10 μm. By contrast, the\nmeasurements of BET specific surface area have demonstrated that the specific surface are of\ncopper-graphite composites heated at 400 0C temperature is about 3 times smaller than the\nunheated ones, reaching about 6 m2/g. Copper-graphite composites had the highest electric\nconductivity of 5 S when composites were heat treated at 200 °C temperature.
Major objective of this study was to appraise the variations in biological activities and phenolics among selected medicinal plants namely, Morus alba, Momordica balsamina, Capparis spinosa, Pongamia pinnata and Peganum hermala indigenous to Pothoharic region, Pakistan. Various enzyme cocktails such as., kemzyme dry-plus, natuzyme and zympex-014 were chosen to enhance the extraction process. Antimicrobial activities were assessed and best performance was shown by natuzyme-assisted M. alba leaves extract (15.34 mm, 20.78 mm) for antibacterial and antifungal strains respectively. While best biofilm inhibition was revealed by P. pinnata, P. hermala and M. alba in the range of 73.25, 69.39 and 62.82% respectively. As far as the haemolytic activity is concerned, zympex-014 assisted C. spinosa extract (1.79 %) exhibited better activity. However, better thrombolytic activity was performed by kemzyme dry-plus based M. balsamina extract (51.93%). Major phenolic acids in selected medicinal plants identified through RP-HPLC were gallic acid (272 ug/g), quercitin (269 ug/g), benzoic acid (184 ug/g), vanillic acid (100 ug/g) and cinnamic acid (68 ug/g) respectively. Overall, the above results revealed that out of enzyme complexes employed here, zympex-014 facilitated in liberation of bound phenolic moieties from medicinal plant extracts and ultimately, enhanced their biological attributes that can be beneficial towards their use in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical industries.
In this paper we will design a model to analyze the behaviour of the agricultural associations according to a new point of view: that of similar groups aimed at achieving both individual objectives as well as social goals. Agricultural associations are thus considered to be pressure groups whose lobbying against the Government benefits from the implicit societal support and the societal belief that\nimprovements in agricultural working conditions would increase the\nwelfare of society in general. The EU agrarian subsidies negotiation\nprocess is used as a point of reference to determine the effectiveness of these lobbies for agricultural workers as well as for the Government. Among our findings, the subsidies information\nlevels are shown to be a parameter which may be managed by the\nGovernment (who may use these lobbies as a controlled information\ndiffusion channel) to maximize their expected payoff.