Experiments were conducted at three different ecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan i.e. Agronomy Research Farm Peshawar, Agriculture Research Center Swat and Karak Farmers Field, during summer season, 2017-2018 to 2018-2019. Randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having four replications was applied for this research work. Sowing of different potential maize cultivars i.e. Azam, Jalal, (OPV) and hybrids (CS-200 and CS-220) was done on different dates starting from May 25 to July 25 with twenty days interval with three ecological zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During the two years, minimum weed density (72.6 m2), less weeds fresh biomass (25.6 g m-2) and weed dry biomass (13.6 g m-2) was observed in 2018 as compared to 2017. Weeds density (70.5 m-2), fresh weed biomass (23.5 g m-2) and dry weed biomass (11.5g m-2) was found lower in Peshawar. However dense weeds and highest weed biomass were recorded in Karak. Similarly, early sowing of maize on 25th May resulted in lower mean values of these attributes. While delayed sown crop increased weed density (88.6 m-2), fresh weed biomass (41.6 g m-2) and dry weed biomass (29.6 g m-2). Weeds infestation was found more prominent in maize OPV cultivars as compare to maize Hybrids. Moreover, maize hybrids (CS-200 and CS-220) resulted in lower weeds density, weeds fresh and dry biomass at all zones as compare to OPV cultivars. Early sowing of maize is recommended for all zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for resilience weeds infestation on maize under changing climate.
The unique ways and manners to process information and explore new notions and ideas are learning styles. Cognitive learning style is among the most significant one. This research intends to investigate relationship between field-independent and field-dependent cognitive learning styles and scanning information in text scores. In this research, 382 students studying at undergraduate level at public sector engineering university were taken as sample through random probability sampling technique. The investigation was made by using Pearson moment correlation coefficient which revealed that there is a significant correlation between field independent cognitive learning style and scanning information in text scores. The results showed that the more field-independent cognitive style students employ, the better the scores will be in their scanning information in text. The findings of this study will facilitate the type of content and teaching methodologies for teaching reading skill to improve their overall learning of reading comprehension. They will be beneficial for researchers in the field, teachers and policy makers in designing and determining ways to facilitate students with different learning styles.
Recently, poultry has been used as experimental animal model in welfare concerns, immune response and improving productivity. This study aims to investigate effect of probiotics as an immune modulator containing Bacillus subtillus, S. galilaeus, and Sphingobacteriaceae on vital functions of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. A total 400 male broiler chickens were assigned into four groups: NC (normal control: 25℃), HC (heat stress control: 33℃), and two HCP groups (HC plus probiotics at 450 or 600 ppm in the diet). For HS of breeding room, temperature and humidity were kept at 33℃ and 70%, respectively. They were auto-adjusted from 12:00 to 16:00 from d 21 to 28. Growth performance of HC group was reduced, compared to NC and HCP groups. Corticosterone, IgG, heterophil, and lymphocyte were worse in HC group than in NC and HCP groups. In case of cecum lactobacillus, it was lower in the HC group than NC and HCP groups. In the case of sitting, wing flapping and drinking, they were higher in the HC group than in NC and HCP groups. Results of this study suggest that feeding probiotics as an immnune modulator containing B. subtillus, S. galilaeus and Sphingobacteriaceae can improve the growth performance by modulating animal behavior via maintenance of immune response and cecum bacteria in broiler chickens under heat stress related climate change
Many pre-clinical studies have used cells and laboratory animals to determine biological effects of Kimchi. However, the clinical effect of Jijang Kimchi on lipid metabolism remains unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of oral administration of Jijang Kimchi extract on reduction adipocyte cell and clinicopathological changes of the high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model. Using a randomized block design, 28 male Sprague Dawley rats at 6-week-old were placed in four groups: 1) normal diet (ND group, AIN 93 purified diet), 2) high fat diet (HF group, AIN 93 modified high-fat diet), 3) commercial Kimchi extract group (CKHF group, HF group plus commercial Kimchi extract), and 4) Jijang Kimchi extract group (JKHF group, HF group plus Jijang Kimchi extracts). Saline and Kimchi extract (0.05 mL/kg BW) were administrated orally using a stomach tube every day at a regular time for 28 days. The JKHF group showed lower daily body weight gain and \n\nweight of adipose tissue in the high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model. compared to the CKHF group. However, there was no significant difference in daily body weight gain or weight of adipose tissue between the JKHF group and the ND group. In the high-fat diet-induced obesity rat model, the JKHF group showed higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared to the ND group, although there was no difference in triacylglycerol or glucose level between the JKHF group and the ND group. The ND group showed the highest increase of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, followed by JKHF, CKHF, and HF groups. The size of adipocyte cell in liver and the adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the JKHF group compared to that in the CKHF or the HF group. Its size became similar to the size of the ND group.
Calculating evapotranspiration is still one of the main challenges. Most water and soil models, such as SWAT and WEAP, need to determine evapotranspiration for their atmospheric boundary conditions. This study evaluates the performance of 11 evapotranspiration (ET) models including three radiation-based methods, Makkink (Mak), Priestley-Taylor (PT) and FAO24 radiation (FAO24Rad), three temperature-based methods, Hargreaves Samani (HS), Blaney Criddle (BC) and Turc (Tu) and five combined models, Penman (P), ASCE Penman (ASCE Pen), Kimberly Penman (KP), FAO 24 Penman (FAO24Pen) and FAO 56 Penman-Monteith (FAO56PM) of differing complexity in a humid temperate environment in western Japan. The estimated daily ET were compared with measured evapotranspiration of Faba bean field at the first stage of growth, which was measured using a weighing lysimeter. Indicators, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), relative error (RE), and normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) were used to evaluate the performance of potential ET estimations by the above-mentioned 11 methods. Bias indicators were also used for determining the overestimation or underestimation of methods. Results showed that all mentioned models underestimate the ET, NSE varies from -6.02 to 0.52, RE varies from 14 to 55%, and NRMSE varies from 0.016 to 0.063. The results of KP and FAO24Pen methods were close. The results of radiation-based methods were not satisfactory. Among the temperature-based methods, the HS method, with the 20% relative error, and from the five combination methods, FAO56PM, with the 14% relative error, showed better performances, respectively. Generally, the FAO56PM method has the highest accuracy respect to measured data.
In this paper, we apply nonlinear least squares method (NLSM) for\nsolving linear and nonlinear differential equations (ODEs). The approximate\nsolution is presented in closed form by means of NLSM, whose parameters\nare adjusted to minimize an approximate error function. For the linear and\nnonlinear cases,these parameters are obtained by solving a system of nonlinear\nequations.
Worldwide the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is on the rise and it has posed a major health concern in developing countries including Pakistan. Certain foods so called functional foods provide health benefits against cardio-metabolic risk factors because of the presence of active nutrients and phytochemicals. We only have scanty information on this issue in this resource poor region of the country. A community based cross-sectional survey was designed to explore the consumption of functional foods and to investigate their possible relation with the risk of metabolic syndrome and its related features among the individuals of District Peshawar. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals aged ≥ 20 years and permanently residing in District Peshawar with no history of chronic disease were enrolled. Life-style and socio-demographic information’s were collected through interview. Dietary information was obtained through semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire while standard protocols were followed for anthropometric, biochemical and blood pressure measurements. A fasting blood sample for plasma glucose and lipid profile was also collected. An International Diabetes Federation criterion was adopted for the identification of individuals having metabolic syndrome. Individuals in the highest compared to the lowest quartile category of functional food score had a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of metabolic syndrome (56.9% vs. 25.0%, p=0.001) hyper-triglyceridaemia (66.7% vs.31.9%, p=0.001) and raised fasting plasma glucose (33.3% vs.19.4%, p=0.040). After adjustment for the confounding variables, individuals in the highest quartile of functional food score had lower odds for metabolic syndrome (AOR=0.69; 95 % Cl=0.45-0.89), abdominal obesity (AOR=0.66; 95% Cl=0.45-0.92; p=0.001), hyper-triglyceridaemia (AOR=0.73; 95% Cl= 0.57-0.89; p=0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (AOR=0.67; 95% Cl= 0.39-0.90; p=0.004). The findings of this study demonstrated that higher intake of functional foods are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome and most of its features.
Insects as a feed can greatly decrease costs of livestock production because they are naturally possess antimicrobial peptides, and good nutritional value. This study was designed to investigate the effect of feeding house fly maggot extract (FME) as immune modulator on growth performance in broiler chickens. Seven hundred twenty of broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to six treatments, with 6 pens per treatments. Experimental groups consisted of: NC (normal control without FME), PC (positive control, 8 ppm of avilamycin), FME5 (50 ppm of FME), FME10 (100 ppm of FME), FME15 (150 ppm of FME), and FME20 (200 ppm of FME). Results showed that FME3 and FME4 groups had greater BW gain and better feed efficiency compared with the control NC (p<0.05). The immune organs were higher in the PC, FME15 and FME20 groups relative to the control NC (p<0.05). FME treatments increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria counts and decreased E. coli and Coliform counts in the cecal digesta when compared with the control NC (p<0.05). The FME15 and FME20birds had higher concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, and total short chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta when compared with the NC (p<0.05). Results of this study implicate that supplementation of 150 ppm of house fly maggot extracts containing antimicrobial peptides to diets could be used as immune modulator to replace antibiotics to improve growth performance of broiler chickens.
Abstract\nBackground: Primary health care (PHC) is the cornerstone to provide health care that is of high quality, cost-effective, relevant and equitable. Adequate manpower in the PHC sector is essential to achieve its expected outcome.\n Aims: This study describes health manpower distribution in the PHC centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and discusses reasons and possible solutions to any existing manpower inequalities. \nMethods: Data in the annual statistical books of the KSA was used. Gini index was calculated based on the population size for four professional categories; physicians, nurses, pharmacists and allied health professionals. \nResults: Although the physician to population ratio of 3.2 per 10000 in 2017 is satisfactory, there is a gross shortage of other professionals in the PHC sector. Among physicians, about 60% of the workforce were non- Saudi nationals while in the other professional categories this percentage was about 15%. The Gini index ranged from 0.21 to 0.27 in the four professional categories.\nConclusion: A considerable inequality of health manpower distribution in the PHC sector across the country is evident. Inequalities in health manpower distribution and Saudi-to-foreigner workforce ratio in the physician category need to be addressed by health authorities to provide culture sensitive and effective PHC services.