A balance in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids ratio (n-6/n-3) is important for obesity prevention and health management. In this study, effects of dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids ratios (n-6/n-3: control 71:1, 4:1, 15:1, 30:1) on blood biomarkers, gene expression, and adipocytes in the obesity model laboratory animals induced by high-fat diet were investigated. In comparison with the control group, blood triacylglycerol level decreased by 22.21%, total cholesterol level decreased by 20.60%, LDL-C level decreased by 52.96%, blood glucose level decreased by 15.71%, ALT level decreased by 11.97%, AST level decreased by 9.13%, insulin level decreased by 37.57%, and leptin level decreased by 45.98% while HDL-C level increased by 28.38% and phospholipids increased by 80.39% in treatment groups (n-6/n-3 ratio at 4:1, 15:1, and 30:1). The treatment group with n-6/n-3 ratio of 4:1 showed the greatest effect. SREPB-1α and SREPB-2 mRNAs in the liver were down-regulated in \n\ntreatment groups with different n-6/n-3 ratios compared to those in the control group while PPARs and LPL-mRNA levels in adipose tissues were up-regulated in treatment groups. The size of adipocyte in the liver was smaller in the order of 30:1, control, 15:1, and 4:1 (n-6/n-3 ratio) groups. The size of adipocyte in the adipose tissue was smaller in the order of control, 30:1, 15:1, and 4:1 groups.
As a major group to promote XBRL, the government\'s guiding strategy is very important for both enterprises and XBRL. This paper aimed to illustrate the necessity of government supervision and guidance by constructing a game model within the enterprise group under government supervision. On this basis, the game model between government and enterprise groups is constructed, and then the problem of government guidance strategy and enterprise XBRL adoption behavior interaction decision is studied. The evolutionary stability strategy of corporate group acceptance was not unique under government supervision. The tangible income and the cost-based change have greater impact on the group strategy than the intangible income and non-formation. The asymmetric game model of government and enterprises has showed that the equilibrium result of the system is not only related to the cost-effectiveness of XBRL technology, but also related to the government\'s supervision, punishment and initial state of system adoption. When the subsidy coefficient, government supervision and punishment are in different value ranges, there are two different evolutionary stability strategies and a periodic random strategy in the evolutionary system. Finally, management suggestions for promoting the adoption of XBRL technology are proposed.
Omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio (n-6/n-3) can affect metabolic distribution of glycerolipid which is newly synthesized and secreted from the liver of obesity model laboratory animals and humans. In this study, the mechanism of dietary n-6/n-3 ratio (control with a ratio of 71:1, treatment groups with ratios of 4:1, 15:1, and 30:1) affecting the metabolic distribution of glycerolipid in obesity model laboratory animals with an attached jugular cannula was investigated using in vivo monitoring technique. Accumulation rates of [14C]-labelling lipid in the adipose tissue, liver, and muscular tissue were significantly (p<0.05) lower in treatment groups with n-6/n-3 ratios of 4:1, 15:1, and 30:1 (in the order of 4:1 < 15:1 < 30:1) compared to those in the control group with n-6/n-3 ratio of 71:1. 14CO2 production was significantly (p <0.05) higher in treatment groups with n-6/n-3 ratios of 4:1, 15:1, and 30:1 compared to that in the control group with n-6/n-3 ratio of 71:1. 14C-oleate rate of cholesteryl metabolized in the liver for total glycerolipid was lower in treatment groups with n-6/n-3 ratios of 4:1, 15:1, \n\nand 30:1 (in the order of 4:1 < 15:1 < 30:1 groups) compared to that in the control group with n-6/n-3 ratio of 71:1 (p<0.05). The distribution rate of phospholipid for total glycerolipid was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the order of 4:1 > 15:1, > 30:1 than that in the control group with n-6/n-3 ratio of 71:1. 14CO2 production for [14C]-total glycerolipid was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in the order of 4:1 > 15:1 > and 30:1 compared to that in the control group (n-6/n-3 = 71:1). In vivo monitoring result showed that the rate of decrease in the secretion of triacylglycerol newly synthesized by the liver and the rate of increase in the phospholipid were the greatest in the 4:1 group compared to those in the control group with n-6/n-3 ratio of 71:1.
Modern feeding and keeping technologies of agricultural birds are based on using special buildings. Under these conditions, the physical state and productivity of birds are determined not only by important measures such as breeding and proper feeding but also by the air condition of the building. It is preferable to switch to intensive technologies to realize the potential of efficiency in poultry farming. However, the intensification of the area increases the anthropogenic load on the environment. The main source of risk for the environment is the utilization system of poultry droppings. Studies have shown that 85% of negative impacts on the environment are due to poultry and livestock wastes. Lighting also plays a significant role in poultry farming. Therefore, lighting is the basis for electricity consumption. Industrial lighting is important for bird physiology and is quite energy-consuming. Besides, the lighting for birds requires slowly switching on and off in a way that imitates the sunrise and sunset. From this point of view, the scientific validity of energy-resource saving lighting and radiation equipment is also very relevant for poultry farming. In general, the development and application of new, effective, low-cost and environmentally friendly technologies are essential for large-scale research. Given that most poultry buildings are equipped with non-refrigerated mechanical ventilation systems, the economic evaluation of the use of evaporative blocks, utilization of poultry droppings, and LED lighting may be of practical importance.\nIt was established that the economic efficiency of using the evaporative cooler in the hot seasons of the year was 84,187.1 manats. This price is achieved by reducing the special expenses of purchasing a product unit and increasing the productivity of birds by 10% in the new variant. The conducted research and designed utilization technology of poultry droppings based on the expert system have shown the expediency of the application of biofermentation in the fermentation chamber. Energy-saving during LED lighting was 20,910 kWh.
In this study, the mechanism regarding the metabolic distribution of glycerolipid newly synthesized and secreted from the liver of laboratory animals after administrating egg yolk orally and attaching jugula vein cannula was investigated through in vivo monitoring. Experimental groups included a control (CON) group orally administered with saline (1.0 g), a T1 group orally administered with pork belly oil (1.0 g), a T2 group orally administered with egg yolk (1.0 g), and a T3 group orally administered with pork belly oil (1.0 g) and egg yolk (1.0 g) in turn for one \n\nweek each. Accumulation rates of cholesteryl-[14C]-oleate in adipose tissue, liver, and hind-leg muscle were the highest in T1 group but the lowest in T2 group (p < 0.05). The amount of phospholipid secretion was higher (p < 0.05) in the order of T2 > T3 > CON > T1. The amount of triacylglycerol secretion was higher in the order of T1 > CON > T3 > T2 (p < 0.05). The distribution rate of phospholipid for total glycerolipid was higher in the order of T2, T3, CON, and T1 (p < 0.05). 14CO2 emission for total glycerolipid was higher in the order of T2, T3, CON, and T1 (p < 0.05). The metabolic distribution of glycerolipid from the liver decreased in the order of T1 < CON < T3 < T2 for triacylglycerol, but it increased in the order of T2 > T3 > CON > T1 for phospholipid.
Poa Pratensis (P. pratensis) is a high-quality nutritional forage species and plays an important role in ecological environment management in the alpine region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Drought stress has become an important factor which restricts the development of animal husbandry in this area. However, the adoptive response of the P. Pratensis under different drought stress conditions at seed emergence and growth stages remains largely unclear. In this study, P. Pratensis was evaluated under control, mild, moderate and severe levels of drought stress (70~80%, 60~70%, 50~60%, and 30~40% water content) using potting method under greenhouse conditions. The results demonstrated that the indicators of various traits of P. pratensis displayed a downward trend with the increased levels of drought stress treatment. The interaction between the sampling time and drought stress on emergence rate, plant height, tiller number, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area, leaf number, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), root length and root number were extremely significant (P < 0.01). Severe level of drought stress significantly reduced the emergence and growth of seeds of P. pratensis, and the moderate drought significantly reduced leaf area, leaf number, root length, plant height, tiller number, relative chlorophyll content, fresh weight, dry weight, root biomass and root number, while the mild drought reduced plant height, tiller number, relative chlorophyll content, dry weight, root number, leaf number and leaf area. From the comparison for the means of different sampling time, the seedling rate, plant height, tiller number and leaf number under different levels of drought treatment were significantly different in the early drought stress response, but on the later stage, the difference was not significant. It was indicated that the self-recovery of P. pratensis leads to a certain level of adaptability to the arid environment.
Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of different input parameters for paneer manufacturing to its final yield. \n\nDesign/methodology/approach – Taguchi Orthogonal array followed by confirmation experiment used for the purpose of optimization of input parameters. \n\nFindings- Experiments have been performed with the use of Taguchi’s orthogonal array for the betterment of paneer yield . Four factors viz. Heating temperature, Coagulation temperature, Strength of coagulant and Immersion time have been considered as input variable. After getting optimal/near optimal process parametric condition through main effect and S/N ratio plot, confirmation experiments have been performed to see the factors and their range for best suit. The combination A3B3C3D3 (i.e. Heating Temperature 95°C, Coagulation temperature 80°C, Strength of Coagulant 2%, and Immersion time 2 hour) furnished the optimum paneer yield of 17.38%.\n\nPractical implications –As per the literature survey it was found that little work no such work of optimizing the paneer yield using multiple factors has not yet been done using Taguchi Orthogonal Array. \nOriginality/value –Process done through experimentation and supported by Voice of customers to find out the problem area followed by extensive literature survey.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of pasteurization (90°C, 1mn) and storage time at ambient temperature for 90 days on physico-chemical and bioactive properties of orange juice (Citrus sinensis L,Thamson variety). Results showed no significantly change ( p≤ 0.05) of the parameters, (total acidity, total reducing sugar and browning index, TS and pH) between the fresh and treated orange juice. Whereas during storage, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (DPPH method) decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing storage time, with losses values were 28%, 58.2% respectively. These findings are important to study the processing conditions, which could be applied and develop a new method in order to preserve the fruits juice without affecting its natural contents.