Abstract\nTransportation planning and improvement of infrastructure for the system is one of the most crucial factors particularly for urban areas, where high level and rapid urbanisation is going on. The demand for transportation in urban area is associated with choices of location of residence by people in relation to places of work, shopping, recreational facilities, educational institutions and other important activities.\nTransportation planning involves the determination of the need for new or expanded highways, transit systems, freight facilities, and transportation terminals, their location, their capacity and the management of their demand. It also involves complex forecasts of human behaviour and economic conditions into the next ten to thirty years. Many assumptions are needed to develop these forecasts and it is unlikely that all of these assumptions will prove to be correct. This is because forecasts can give reasonable results if they are based on good data and reasonable assumptions. It is therefore important that the assumptions behind a planning effort be clearly stated and that a reasonable range of future conditions be examined. The differences between alternatives are likely to be more accurate than the absolute values. These differences should be the basis for decision making (Beimborn, n.d.) but the focus of planners should not only be on transportation planning models that is technically efficient and effective but flexible, technologically driven and economically beneficial. This means a blend of high engineering and technological precision in delivery with resounding economic efficiency. Thepurpose of this articletherefore,is to provideunderstandingof thetransportation planning, using of operational analysis methods and value engineering methods. This has the potential of improving planning efficiency, effectiveness in the deliveries within operations and the overall economic benefits to all stakeholders within the transportation services projects.
Frequencies, magnitudes, and distributions of occurrence can affect the events. The problem or the solution will be greater depending of degrees of the frequency and magnitude. Indices, hence, are used to assist in decision making on certain issues. The motivation of this work was to develop a simple indice able to identify the loss (L.S.) and solution (S.S.) sources, and their importances in terms of loss or income gain on system. The developed indice was: percentage of the importance indice-high knowledge (% I.I.-HK) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/? (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The L.S.1 and L.S.7 were the most important on reducing production and S.S.3 and S.S.5 in increasing income gain on system. Here I show the percentage of the importance indice-high knowledge (% I.I.-HK), a simple indice, capable of detecting the key loss and solution sources on system, can be applied in some knowledge areas.
The correlations between the color, the dry base contents of VC, reducing sugar and total acid were studied during winter jujube slices drying process at the different hot air temperatures (55, 60, 65, 70 °C). And the quality indexes with higher correlation coefficient were related. Then used PLSR, SMLR and PCR established quality prediction models. Finally, the optimal model was obtained by analysis and comparison. Results showed that: it was determined that the VC content prediction model was more suitable for PLSR modeling, and the content of reducing sugar prediction model was more suitable for PCR modeling. And the Rp of prediction model of the content of VC was 0.769; the RMSEP was 0.59; the RPD value was 2.1. The Rp of prediction model of the content of reducing sugar was 0.816, the RMSEP was 0.56, and the RPD value was 2.2.
Terminalia argentea Mart. (Combretaceae) is widely used in landscaping and to recover degraded areas, but the arthropod fauna associated to this plant needs further studies. This study aimed to evaluate arthropods and their ecological indices on P. regnellii leaf faces. The numbers of phytophagous insects, e.g. Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae), pollinators, e.g. Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille). (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and natural enemies, e.g. Oxyopidae (Araneae), and their ecological indices, e.g. species richness, were higher on adaxial leaf faces of T. argentea. The high number of Cephalocoema sp. on T. argentea plants is worrying, because this insect can feed on leaves of this plant, but its preference for the adaxial leaf face favors its control.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between tinnitus, chronic disease and patients’ depression level. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two patients with subjective tinnitus and 40 controls were enrolled in this study. Subjects were assigned as tinnitus (+) and tinnitus (-) groups. The tinnitus (+) group was divided into two subgroups: with chronic disease (n=82) and without chronic disease (n=100). The tinnitus (-) group was also separated into two equal subgroups: with and without chronic disease. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied for all the patients.Results: The average THI scores were 53.43 ± 21.91 and 36.26 ± 22.48 for the tinnitus (+) with chronic disease group and tinnitus (+) without chronic disease groups, respectively. THI scores of patients with chronic disease were significantly higher than those of patients without chronic disease (P < 0.0001). The average BDI scores were 24.08 ± 9.95 for the tinnitus (+) with chronic disease group and 13.16±8.48 for the tinnitus (+) without chronic disease group. The depression severity of patients with chronic disease was significantly higher than that of patients without chronic disease (P < 0.0001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between THI and BDI scores of the tinnitus (+) with chronic disease group (r=0.2247, P < 0.05) and tinnitus (+) without chronic disease group (r=0.4848, P <0.001). Conclusion: Patients with chronic disease feel more discomfort due to their tinnitus. Thus, this study suggests that patients with both tinnitus and chronic disease are more prone to depression.